Fire alarm system design

Fire alarm system

What is a fire alarm project

A fire alarm system design is a comprehensive plan that describes the fire detection and notification system for a particular facility. It includes a schematic representation of the location of equipment such as smoke, heat, and flame detectors, as well as means of notification and control of the system. The project must comply with current regulations and fire safety standards, take into account the specifics of the building or structure, as well as potential risks.

For which objects it is necessary to develop a fire alarm system project (PS)

The development of a fire alarm system design is mandatory for a wide range of facilities, including:

  • Residential buildings: especially high-rise buildings and dormitories where the risk of fire spread is high.
  • Educational establishments: schools, universities, kindergartens where large numbers of people are present.
  • Shopping and entertainment centers: because of the large number of people and the presence of various retail outlets.
  • Industrial plants: especially those that handle flammable materials or carry out processes involving high temperatures.
  • Office buildings: especially high-rise buildings where evacuation may be difficult.
  • Warehouses: where large quantities of goods, including potentially hazardous goods, are stored.
  • Medical facilities: hospitals, clinics, laboratories.
  • Cultural and sports facilities: theaters, museums, sports complexes.

For each of these objects the fire alarm system project is developed taking into account specific conditions and needs. It should provide effective fire detection and prompt notification of all people in the building, as well as allow timely coordination of fire departments if necessary.

What the fire alarm system project contains

The fire alarm system project is a document that is a detailed description of the fire detection and notification system at a certain object. The main components of such a project include:

  1. Terms of Reference: Defining the goals and objectives of the system based on the characteristics of the facility, its functional purpose and potential risks.
  2. Equipment layout diagrams: Detailed floor plans of the building showing exactly where smoke, heat, flame, and manual fire detectors, as well as control and warning units, will be installed.
  3. Equipment Specification: A list and characteristics of all equipment used in the system, including detectors, control panels, signaling devices, cabling and other components.
  4. Notification and evacuation control systems: Detailed description of mechanisms for notifying people of fire and organizing evacuation routes.
  5. Detection Zone Calculation: Analyze and define sensor coverage zones based on room characteristics and possible fire sources.
  6. Installation and Wiring Plan: Instructions for installing the equipment, including cable routes and wiring methods.
  7. Regulatory and legal framework: References to applicable regulations governing the requirements for fire alarm systems.
  8. Fire safety measures: Recommendations for fire prevention, including organizational and technical measures.
  9. Maintenance and Inspection Plan: A schedule for regular inspection and maintenance of the system to ensure its reliable operation.

The fire alarm system design should be developed by qualified professionals and coordinated with the relevant regulatory authorities to ensure it meets all fire safety requirements.

Rules and regulations in fire alarm system design

Fire alarm system design rules

When designing a fire alarm system project, it is important to take a comprehensive approach. This means that the project should take into account all aspects of fire safety of the object. The key point is to take into account the specifics of the premises, their functional purpose, the materials from which they are made, as well as an assessment of potential fire risks.

The most important criterion in design is the compliance of the project with current regulations and fire safety requirements. This guarantees not only the effectiveness of the system in the event of a fire, but also its legal protection. Each project should be individually adapted to a particular building or structure, taking into account its architectural and functional features. This approach allows for maximum consideration of all possible factors that may affect fire safety.

The selection of equipment for a fire alarm system should be based on its performance and effectiveness. This includes smoke, heat, flame detectors, manual fire detectors, and control and warning systems. The design should also include evacuation plans and provide easy access to firefighting equipment, which is an important part of ensuring the fire safety of the facility.

Regulatory acts for the development and approval of the project

In Ukraine, the development and coordination of fire alarm system projects are regulated by the following normative acts:

  1. DBN B.1.1-7-2016 “Fire protection systems. Norms and requirements of fire safety”: This document contains general requirements for fire protection systems, including fire alarm systems.
  2. NPAOP 0.00-1.28-10 “Rules of Fire Safety in Ukraine”: It establishes general rules of fire safety, including requirements for the installation and operation of fire alarm systems.
  3. DSTU ISO 7240-1:2011 “Fire alarm and fire extinguishing systems. Part 1: Planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance”: Standard regulating the process of creating a fire alarm system at all stages of its life cycle.
  4. DSTU EN 54 “Fire Alarm Systems”: A series of standards specifying requirements for fire alarm system components, including sensors, control panels and notification means.

Compliance with these regulations is mandatory to ensure that the project complies with fire safety requirements and is successfully approved by the regulatory authorities.

Stages of fire alarm system project development

What includes the project of fire alarm system

Fire alarm system project is a complex document that contains all the necessary elements to ensure fire safety of the object. It includes the terms of reference, equipment layout diagrams, specification of all system components, evacuation plans, and fire safety measures. It also contains calculations of fire detection zones, instructions for installation and connection of equipment, as well as a plan for maintenance and technical inspection of the system.

Stages of work on the project

Fire alarm system project development includes several key stages:

  1. Preparation of the terms of reference: Definition of goals, objectives and requirements for the alarm system based on the characteristics of the object.
  2. Development of the system concept: Selection of the type of alarm system and definition of the main components of the system.
  3. Creation of project documentation: Development of schemes and plans of equipment location, calculation of detection zones and evacuation plans.
  4. Technical calculation and equipment selection: Determination of the necessary equipment and its characteristics in accordance with the requirements of the project.
  5. Coordination of the project with the customer: Submission of the project to the customer for approval and possible adjustments.

Drawing up and approval of project documents

After the development of the project, it is necessary to formalize and coordinate it. This process includes the preparation of all necessary documents and their submission to the relevant authorities to obtain permits and approvals.

Where it is necessary to coordinate the fire alarm project: a detailed list of organizations

  1. Local authorities of the State Emergency Situations Service (SES): The main body responsible for checking and approving fire safety projects.
  2. Architectural and Construction Control Bodies: To approve changes to the building’s structure, if any, provided by the project.
  3. Sanitary and Epidemiological Service: In case the project involves works affecting the sanitary and hygienic conditions of the facility.
  4. Power supply organizations: If the project includes works related to changes in the power supply of the facility.
  5. Other specialized organizations: Depending on the specifics of the facility and the nature of the work, additional approvals with other organizations and services may be required.

Each stage of approval is an important part of the project development process, as it ensures its compliance with all fire safety requirements and standards.

Principle of fire alarm system operation

What does a fire alarm system respond to?

A fire alarm system is designed for early detection and notification of signs of fire. It reacts to various factors such as:

  • Smoke: The most common sign of fire. Smoke sensors react to the presence of smoke in the air.
  • Temperature rise: Heat sensors are triggered when the temperature reaches a certain threshold or rises rapidly.
  • Flame presence: Specialized sensors can detect flames by characteristic radiation.
  • Carbon monoxide: Some systems are equipped with sensors that can detect elevated levels of carbon monoxide in the air.

Addressable and analog fire alarms

There are two main types of equipment used in fire alarm systems: addressable and analog systems.

  1. Addressable fire alarm systems: These are modern systems in which each sensor is assigned a unique address. This allows you to pinpoint the exact location of the trigger in the event of a fire. Addressable systems provide better detection accuracy and ease of operation, as the actuation information is displayed on the control panel with a specific location.
  2. Analog fire alarm systems: In these systems, sensors are connected to a common alarm line without individual addressing. When a sensor is triggered, the system notifies you of a fire, but does not indicate the exact location of the fire. Analog systems are easy to install and operate, but they are less functional than addressable systems and are suitable for smaller or less complex facilities.

The choice between an addressable and analog system depends on many factors, including the size and complexity of the facility, as well as the requirements of the fire alarm system.

Fire alarm system installation

Installation features and fire resistance of the cable line

Installation of fire alarm systems is a responsible process that requires strict compliance with technical and safety standards. Particular attention is paid to the following aspects during installation:

  1. Location of sensors and annunciators: Sensors should be installed in accordance with the project, ensuring full coverage of all required areas. It is important to take into account ceiling heights, obstructions and airflow patterns. Annunciators should be positioned so that the sound and light signals are clearly audible at any point in the facility.
  2. Wiring and system setup: All system components must be properly wired and configured. This includes verifying that the sensor signals are correct, that the public address system and control panels are working properly.
  3. Fire Resistant Cabling: The use of fire resistant cables and wires in a fire alarm system is critical. Fire-resistant cables can withstand high temperatures for a period of time without losing functionality, which ensures that the system can function under fire conditions. This is especially important for ensuring the functioning of the notification and evacuation control system.
  4. Layout and labeling of cable routes: Cable routes must be properly planned and labeled. This simplifies system maintenance and allows for quick troubleshooting.
  5. Compliance with safety regulations: During installation, it is important to comply with all safety rules and regulations to minimize risks to installers and others on site.

The installation of fire alarm systems should be carried out by qualified professionals who are familiar with the regulatory requirements and have experience in working with such systems. Once the installation is complete, the entire system should be tested to ensure that it is working correctly and complies with fire safety requirements.

What affects the cost

The cost of designing an automatic fire alarm system and fire suppression equipment depends on many factors. The main ones include:

  1. Complexity and scale of the project: Large or complex facilities such as industrial plants, shopping centers or multi-story buildings require more detailed and thorough planning, which increases the cost of design.
  2. Type and quantity of equipment used: High-tech equipment such as addressable fire alarm systems or automatic fire suppression systems are more expensive than simpler analog systems.
  3. Specific fire safety requirements: Special requirements, such as those for facilities with a high risk of fire or for buildings of historical significance, may require special solutions, which will also increase the cost.
  4. System complexity: Integrating a fire alarm system with other security systems, such as video surveillance or access control, can increase project costs.
  5. Regulatory and statutory requirements: Compliance with all applicable regulations and statutory requirements may incur additional costs, especially if there are changes in legislation or safety standards.
  6. Installation and commissioning costs: The installation and commissioning work also affects the overall cost of the project. It is important to consider both the cost of the work itself and the complexity of the installation depending on the specific site.
  7. Region of the work: Labor and material costs can vary significantly from region to region, which will also impact the overall cost of system design and installation.

With all of these factors in mind, you can see why the cost of designing and installing fire alarm and fire suppression systems can vary greatly depending on the specific conditions and requirements of each individual project.

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